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Sara Gerke

Sara Gerke

Scientific Program:Cancer Control
SVG5973@psu.edu

Research Interests

  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Privacy
  • Health
  • Machine Learning
  • Equipment and Supplies
  • Safety
  • Pandemics
  • Germany
  • Antibodies
  • Software
  • Delivery of Health Care
  • Legal Liability

Recent Publications

2024

Elamin, S, Duffourc, M, Berzin, TM, Geissler, ME & Gerke, S 2024, 'Artificial Intelligence and Medical Liability in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy', Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 1165-1169.e1. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2024.03.011
Duffourc, MN & Gerke, S 2024, 'Health Care AI and Patient Privacy - Dinerstein v Google', JAMA. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2024.1110

2023

Hedderich, DM, Weisstanner, C, Van Cauter, S, Federau, C, Edjlali, M, Radbruch, A, Gerke, S & Haller, S 2023, 'Artificial intelligence tools in clinical neuroradiology: essential medico-legal aspects', Neuroradiology, vol. 65, no. 7, pp. 1091-1099. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00234-023-03152-7
Gerke, S 2023, Ethical and legal issues in artificial intelligence-based cardiology. in Intelligence-Based Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery: Artificial Intelligence and Human Cognition in Cardiovascular Medicine. Elsevier, pp. 415-419. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-323-90534-3.00034-2
Walsh, R, Kearns, EC, Moynihan, A, Gerke, S, Duffourc, M, Corrales Compagnucci, M, Minssen, T & Cahill, RA 2023, 'Ethical perspectives on surgical video recording for patients, surgeons and society: systematic review', BJS open, vol. 7, no. 3, zrad063. https://doi.org/10.1093/bjsopen/zrad063
Duffourc, M & Gerke, S 2023, 'Generative AI in Health Care and Liability Risks for Physicians and Safety Concerns for Patients', JAMA, vol. 330, no. 4, pp. 313-314. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2023.9630
Cohen, IG, Babic, B, Gerke, S, Xia, Q, Evgeniou, T & Wertenbroch, K 2023, 'How AI can learn from the law: putting humans in the loop only on appeal', npj Digital Medicine, vol. 6, no. 1, 160. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41746-023-00906-8
Shachar, C & Gerke, S 2023, 'Prevention of Bias and Discrimination in Clinical Practice Algorithms', JAMA, vol. 329, no. 4, pp. 283-284. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2022.23867
Gerke, S 2023, Privacy Laws in the USA, Europe, and South Africa. in AI in Clinical Medicine: A Practical Guide for Healthcare Professionals. wiley, pp. 395-406. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119790686.ch37
Duffourc, MN & Gerke, S 2023, 'The proposed EU Directives for AI liability leave worrying gaps likely to impact medical AI', npj Digital Medicine, vol. 6, no. 1, 77. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41746-023-00823-w
Gerke, S 2023, '“Nutrition Facts Labels” for Artificial Intelligence/Machine Learning-Based Medical Devices—The Urgent Need for Labeling Standards', George Washington Law Review, vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 79-163.

2022

Kostick-Quenet, KM & Gerke, S 2022, 'AI in the hands of imperfect users', npj Digital Medicine, vol. 5, no. 1, 197. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41746-022-00737-z
Michelson, KN, Klugman, CM, Kho, AN & Gerke, S 2022, 'Ethical Considerations Related to Using Machine Learning-Based Prediction of Mortality in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit', Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 247, pp. 125-128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2021.12.069
Kostick-Quenet, KM, Cohen, IG, Gerke, S, Lo, B, Antaki, J, Movahedi, F, Njah, H, Schoen, L, Estep, JE & Blumenthal-Barby, JS 2022, 'Mitigating Racial Bias in Machine Learning', Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 92-100. https://doi.org/10.1017/jme.2022.13
Gerke, S & Rezaeikhonakdar, D 2022, 'Privacy aspects of direct-to-consumer artificial intelligence/machine learning health apps', Intelligence-Based Medicine, vol. 6, 100061. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibmed.2022.100061
Klugman, CM & Gerke, S 2022, 'Rise of the Bioethics AI: Curse or Blessing?', American Journal of Bioethics, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 35-37. https://doi.org/10.1080/15265161.2022.2075056
Shachar, C, Gerke, S, Morrell, W, Kirby, A, Cohen, IG & Bierer, BE 2022, 'When Is a Change Significant? The Update Problem of Apps in Medical and Behavioral Research', IRB, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 2-11. https://doi.org/10.1002/eahr.500118
Goodman, GR, Kikut, A, Bustamante, MJ, Mendez, L, Mohamed, Y, Shachar, C, Cohen, IG, Gerke, S, Boyer, EW, Rosen, RK, Mayer, KH, O’Cleirigh, C & Chai, PR 2022, '“I’d feel like someone was watchin’ me… watching for a good reason”: perceptions of data privacy, access, and sharing in the context of real-time PrEP adherence monitoring among HIV-negative MSM with substance use', AIDS and Behavior, vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 2981-2993. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-022-03614-8

2021

Maliha, G, Gerke, S, Cohen, IG & Parikh, RB 2021, 'Artificial Intelligence and Liability in Medicine: Balancing Safety and Innovation', Milbank Quarterly, vol. 99, no. 3, pp. 629-647. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-0009.12504
Babic, BB, Gerke, S, Evgeniou, T & Glenn Cohen, I 2021, 'Beware explanations from AI in health care the benefits of explainable artificial intelligence are not what they appear', Science, vol. 373, no. 6552, pp. 284-286. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abg1834
Gerke, S, Katznelson, G, Reiss, D & Shachar, C 2021, 'COVID-19 Antibody Testing as a Precondition for Employment: Ethical and Legal Considerations', Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 293-302. https://doi.org/10.1017/jme.2021.42
Babic, B, Gerke, S, Evgeniou, T & Cohen, IG 2021, 'Direct-to-consumer medical machine learning and artificial intelligence applications', Nature Machine Intelligence, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 283-287. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42256-021-00331-0
Rodwin, MA & Gerke, S 2022, 'German Pharmaceutical Pricing: Lessons for the United States', International Journal of Health Services, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 146-158. https://doi.org/10.1177/00207314211040948
Price, WN, Gerke, S & Cohen, IG 2021, 'How much can potential jurors tell us about liability for medical artificial intelligence?', Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 15-16. https://doi.org/10.2967/jnumed.120.257196
Zicari, RV, Brusseau, J, Blomberg, SN, Christensen, HC, Coffee, M, Ganapini, MB, Gerke, S, Gilbert, TK, Hickman, E, Hildt, E, Holm, S, Kühne, U, Madai, VI, Osika, W, Spezzatti, A, Schnebel, E, Tithi, JJ, Vetter, D, Westerlund, M, Wurth, R, Amann, J, Antun, V, Beretta, V, Bruneault, F, Campano, E, Düdder, B, Gallucci, A, Goffi, E, Haase, CB, Hagendorff, T, Kringen, P, Möslein, F, Ottenheimer, D, Ozols, M, Palazzani, L, Petrin, M, Tafur, K, Tørresen, J, Volland, H & Kararigas, G 2021, 'On Assessing Trustworthy AI in Healthcare. Machine Learning as a Supportive Tool to Recognize Cardiac Arrest in Emergency Calls', Frontiers in Human Dynamics, vol. 3, 673104. https://doi.org/10.3389/fhumd.2021.673104
Katznelson, G & Gerke, S 2021, 'The need for health AI ethics in medical school education', Advances in Health Sciences Education, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 1447-1458. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-021-10040-3
Babic, B, Cohen, IG, Evgeniou, T & Gerke, S 2021, 'When machine learning goes off the rails a guide to managing the risks', Harvard business review, vol. 2021, no. January-February, pp. 1-10.

2020

Shachar, C, Gerke, S & Adashi, EY 2020, 'AI Surveillance during Pandemics: Ethical Implementation Imperatives', Hastings Center Report, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 18-21. https://doi.org/10.1002/hast.1125
Gunnarsdóttir, HD, Sinha, MS, Gerke, S & Minssen, T 2020, 'Applying the proportionality principle to COVID-19 antibody testing', Journal of Law and the Biosciences, vol. 7, no. 1. https://doi.org/10.1093/jlb/lsaa058
Gerke, S, Yeung, S & Cohen, IG 2020, 'Ethical and Legal Aspects of Ambient Intelligence in Hospitals', JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 323, no. 7, pp. 601-602. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2019.21699
Cohen, IG, Gerke, S & Kramer, DB 2020, 'Ethical and Legal Implications of Remote Monitoring of Medical Devices', Milbank Quarterly, vol. 98, no. 4, pp. 1257-1289. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-0009.12481
Gerke, S, Minssen, T & Cohen, G 2020, Ethical and legal challenges of artificial intelligence-driven healthcare. in Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare. Elsevier, pp. 295-336. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-818438-7.00012-5
Gerke, S, Stern, AD & Minssen, T 2020, 'Germany’s digital health reforms in the COVID-19 era: lessons and opportunities for other countries', npj Digital Medicine, vol. 3, no. 1, 94. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41746-020-0306-7
Minssen, T, Gerke, S, Aboy, M, Price, N & Cohen, G 2020, 'Regulatory responses to medical machine learning', Journal of Law and the Biosciences, vol. 7, no. 1, lsaa002. https://doi.org/10.1093/jlb/lsaa002
Gerke, S, Shachar, C, Chai, PR & Cohen, IG 2020, 'Regulatory, safety, and privacy concerns of home monitoring technologies during COVID-19', Nature Medicine, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 1176-1182. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-0994-1
Cohen, IG, Evgeniou, T, Gerke, S & Minssen, T 2020, 'The European artificial intelligence strategy: implications and challenges for digital health', The Lancet Digital Health, vol. 2, no. 7, pp. e376-e379. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2589-7500(20)30112-6
Cohen, IG, Adashi, EY, Gerke, S, Palacios-Gonzaacutelez, C & Ravitsky, V 2020, 'The Regulation of Mitochondrial Replacement Techniques around the World', Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics, vol. 21, pp. 565-586. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genom-111119-101815
Gerke, S, Babic, B, Evgeniou, T & Cohen, IG 2020, 'The need for a system view to regulate artificial intelligence/machine learning-based software as medical device', npj Digital Medicine, vol. 3, no. 1, 53. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41746-020-0262-2