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Sara Gerke

Sara Gerke

Scientific Program:Cancer Control

Research Interests

  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Privacy
  • Health
  • Machine Learning
  • Equipment and Supplies
  • Safety
  • Pandemics
  • Germany
  • Antibodies
  • Software
  • Delivery of Health Care
  • Legal Liability

Recent Publications


Elamin, S, Duffourc, M, Berzin, TM, Geissler, ME & Gerke, S 2024, 'Artificial Intelligence and Medical Liability in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy', Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 1165-1169.e1.
Duffourc, MN & Gerke, S 2024, 'Health Care AI and Patient Privacy - Dinerstein v Google', JAMA.


Hedderich, DM, Weisstanner, C, Van Cauter, S, Federau, C, Edjlali, M, Radbruch, A, Gerke, S & Haller, S 2023, 'Artificial intelligence tools in clinical neuroradiology: essential medico-legal aspects', Neuroradiology, vol. 65, no. 7, pp. 1091-1099.
Gerke, S 2023, Ethical and legal issues in artificial intelligence-based cardiology. in Intelligence-Based Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery: Artificial Intelligence and Human Cognition in Cardiovascular Medicine. Elsevier, pp. 415-419.
Walsh, R, Kearns, EC, Moynihan, A, Gerke, S, Duffourc, M, Corrales Compagnucci, M, Minssen, T & Cahill, RA 2023, 'Ethical perspectives on surgical video recording for patients, surgeons and society: systematic review', BJS open, vol. 7, no. 3, zrad063.
Duffourc, M & Gerke, S 2023, 'Generative AI in Health Care and Liability Risks for Physicians and Safety Concerns for Patients', JAMA, vol. 330, no. 4, pp. 313-314.
Cohen, IG, Babic, B, Gerke, S, Xia, Q, Evgeniou, T & Wertenbroch, K 2023, 'How AI can learn from the law: putting humans in the loop only on appeal', npj Digital Medicine, vol. 6, no. 1, 160.
Shachar, C & Gerke, S 2023, 'Prevention of Bias and Discrimination in Clinical Practice Algorithms', JAMA, vol. 329, no. 4, pp. 283-284.
Gerke, S 2023, Privacy Laws in the USA, Europe, and South Africa. in AI in Clinical Medicine: A Practical Guide for Healthcare Professionals. wiley, pp. 395-406.
Duffourc, MN & Gerke, S 2023, 'The proposed EU Directives for AI liability leave worrying gaps likely to impact medical AI', npj Digital Medicine, vol. 6, no. 1, 77.
Gerke, S 2023, '“Nutrition Facts Labels” for Artificial Intelligence/Machine Learning-Based Medical Devices—The Urgent Need for Labeling Standards', George Washington Law Review, vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 79-163.


Kostick-Quenet, KM & Gerke, S 2022, 'AI in the hands of imperfect users', npj Digital Medicine, vol. 5, no. 1, 197.
Michelson, KN, Klugman, CM, Kho, AN & Gerke, S 2022, 'Ethical Considerations Related to Using Machine Learning-Based Prediction of Mortality in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit', Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 247, pp. 125-128.
Kostick-Quenet, KM, Cohen, IG, Gerke, S, Lo, B, Antaki, J, Movahedi, F, Njah, H, Schoen, L, Estep, JE & Blumenthal-Barby, JS 2022, 'Mitigating Racial Bias in Machine Learning', Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 92-100.
Gerke, S & Rezaeikhonakdar, D 2022, 'Privacy aspects of direct-to-consumer artificial intelligence/machine learning health apps', Intelligence-Based Medicine, vol. 6, 100061.
Klugman, CM & Gerke, S 2022, 'Rise of the Bioethics AI: Curse or Blessing?', American Journal of Bioethics, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 35-37.
Shachar, C, Gerke, S, Morrell, W, Kirby, A, Cohen, IG & Bierer, BE 2022, 'When Is a Change Significant? The Update Problem of Apps in Medical and Behavioral Research', IRB, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 2-11.
Goodman, GR, Kikut, A, Bustamante, MJ, Mendez, L, Mohamed, Y, Shachar, C, Cohen, IG, Gerke, S, Boyer, EW, Rosen, RK, Mayer, KH, O’Cleirigh, C & Chai, PR 2022, '“I’d feel like someone was watchin’ me… watching for a good reason”: perceptions of data privacy, access, and sharing in the context of real-time PrEP adherence monitoring among HIV-negative MSM with substance use', AIDS and Behavior, vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 2981-2993.


Maliha, G, Gerke, S, Cohen, IG & Parikh, RB 2021, 'Artificial Intelligence and Liability in Medicine: Balancing Safety and Innovation', Milbank Quarterly, vol. 99, no. 3, pp. 629-647.
Babic, BB, Gerke, S, Evgeniou, T & Glenn Cohen, I 2021, 'Beware explanations from AI in health care the benefits of explainable artificial intelligence are not what they appear', Science, vol. 373, no. 6552, pp. 284-286.
Gerke, S, Katznelson, G, Reiss, D & Shachar, C 2021, 'COVID-19 Antibody Testing as a Precondition for Employment: Ethical and Legal Considerations', Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 293-302.
Babic, B, Gerke, S, Evgeniou, T & Cohen, IG 2021, 'Direct-to-consumer medical machine learning and artificial intelligence applications', Nature Machine Intelligence, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 283-287.
Rodwin, MA & Gerke, S 2022, 'German Pharmaceutical Pricing: Lessons for the United States', International Journal of Health Services, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 146-158.
Price, WN, Gerke, S & Cohen, IG 2021, 'How much can potential jurors tell us about liability for medical artificial intelligence?', Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 15-16.
Zicari, RV, Brusseau, J, Blomberg, SN, Christensen, HC, Coffee, M, Ganapini, MB, Gerke, S, Gilbert, TK, Hickman, E, Hildt, E, Holm, S, Kühne, U, Madai, VI, Osika, W, Spezzatti, A, Schnebel, E, Tithi, JJ, Vetter, D, Westerlund, M, Wurth, R, Amann, J, Antun, V, Beretta, V, Bruneault, F, Campano, E, Düdder, B, Gallucci, A, Goffi, E, Haase, CB, Hagendorff, T, Kringen, P, Möslein, F, Ottenheimer, D, Ozols, M, Palazzani, L, Petrin, M, Tafur, K, Tørresen, J, Volland, H & Kararigas, G 2021, 'On Assessing Trustworthy AI in Healthcare. Machine Learning as a Supportive Tool to Recognize Cardiac Arrest in Emergency Calls', Frontiers in Human Dynamics, vol. 3, 673104.
Katznelson, G & Gerke, S 2021, 'The need for health AI ethics in medical school education', Advances in Health Sciences Education, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 1447-1458.
Babic, B, Cohen, IG, Evgeniou, T & Gerke, S 2021, 'When machine learning goes off the rails a guide to managing the risks', Harvard business review, vol. 2021, no. January-February, pp. 1-10.


Shachar, C, Gerke, S & Adashi, EY 2020, 'AI Surveillance during Pandemics: Ethical Implementation Imperatives', Hastings Center Report, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 18-21.
Gunnarsdóttir, HD, Sinha, MS, Gerke, S & Minssen, T 2020, 'Applying the proportionality principle to COVID-19 antibody testing', Journal of Law and the Biosciences, vol. 7, no. 1.
Gerke, S, Yeung, S & Cohen, IG 2020, 'Ethical and Legal Aspects of Ambient Intelligence in Hospitals', JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 323, no. 7, pp. 601-602.
Cohen, IG, Gerke, S & Kramer, DB 2020, 'Ethical and Legal Implications of Remote Monitoring of Medical Devices', Milbank Quarterly, vol. 98, no. 4, pp. 1257-1289.
Gerke, S, Minssen, T & Cohen, G 2020, Ethical and legal challenges of artificial intelligence-driven healthcare. in Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare. Elsevier, pp. 295-336.
Gerke, S, Stern, AD & Minssen, T 2020, 'Germany’s digital health reforms in the COVID-19 era: lessons and opportunities for other countries', npj Digital Medicine, vol. 3, no. 1, 94.
Minssen, T, Gerke, S, Aboy, M, Price, N & Cohen, G 2020, 'Regulatory responses to medical machine learning', Journal of Law and the Biosciences, vol. 7, no. 1, lsaa002.
Gerke, S, Shachar, C, Chai, PR & Cohen, IG 2020, 'Regulatory, safety, and privacy concerns of home monitoring technologies during COVID-19', Nature Medicine, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 1176-1182.
Cohen, IG, Evgeniou, T, Gerke, S & Minssen, T 2020, 'The European artificial intelligence strategy: implications and challenges for digital health', The Lancet Digital Health, vol. 2, no. 7, pp. e376-e379.
Cohen, IG, Adashi, EY, Gerke, S, Palacios-Gonzaacutelez, C & Ravitsky, V 2020, 'The Regulation of Mitochondrial Replacement Techniques around the World', Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics, vol. 21, pp. 565-586.
Gerke, S, Babic, B, Evgeniou, T & Cohen, IG 2020, 'The need for a system view to regulate artificial intelligence/machine learning-based software as medical device', npj Digital Medicine, vol. 3, no. 1, 53.