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William Calo, PhD, JD, MPH

William Calo, PhD, JD, MPH

Assistant Professor, Department of Public Health Sciences
Associate Professor, Department of Public Health Sciences
Division of Health Services and Behavioral Research
Associate Professor, Department of Family and Community Medicine
Scientific Program:Cancer Control

Research Interests

Dr. William Calo is a Latino health services researcher. His research program examines how to adapt, implement and evaluate evidence-based interventions to improve cancer prevention and control among diverse and disadvantaged populations. Dr. Calo is currently focused on the impact of interpersonal, systems and policy strategies on HPV vaccine uptake in rural communities and the implementation of locally tailored programs to improve physical activity, nutrition and community-clinical linkages. He applies implementation science methodologies in his studies.

  • Vaccination
  • Puerto Rico
  • Papillomavirus Vaccines
  • Parents
  • Hispanic Americans
  • Neoplasms
  • Vaccines
  • Communication
  • Population
  • Health
  • Child
  • Incidence

Clinical Trials

Measuring changes in knowledge, perception of benefit, susceptibility, severity, and self-efficacy of community outreach colorectal cancer and colorectal cancer screening education in underserved populations: a survey study.
HPV ECHO: Increasing the adoption of evidence-based communication strategies for HPV vaccination in rural primary care practices.

Recent Publications


Heisler-MacKinnon, JA, Queen, T, Yi Kong, W, Kennedy, KL, Thomas, T, Calo, WA & Gilkey, MB 2024, 'Identifying effective vaccine champions: Findings from a national survey of primary care professionals', Vaccine, vol. 42, no. 13, pp. 3148-3152.
Bufalini, CM, Kraschnewski, JL, Riley, TD, Wile, K, Spanos, K, Wong, A, Myrick, JG, Schaefer, EW & Calo, WA 2024, 'Stories to Prevent Cancer: A Pilot Study Using Cancer Survivor Narratives to Increase Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Intentions', Cancer Control, vol. 31.
D'Souza, GC, Pinto, CN, Exten, CL, Yingst, JM, Foulds, J, Anderson, J, Allen, R & Calo, WA 2024, 'Understanding factors associated with COVID-19 vaccination among health care workers using the Diffusion of Innovation Theory', American journal of infection control, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 509-516.
Brewington, MK, Queen, TL, Heisler-MacKinnon, J, Calo, WA, Weaver, S, Barry, C, Kong, WY, Kennedy, KL, Shea, CM & Gilkey, MB 2024, 'Who are vaccine champions and what implementation strategies do they use to improve adolescent HPV vaccination? Findings from a national survey of primary care professionals', Implementation Science Communications, vol. 5, no. 1, 28.


Kraschnewski, JL, Heilbrunn, ES, Calo, WA, Kong, L, Lehman, E, Hogentogler, E, Fisher, A, Osevala, N, Paules, CI, Whitaker, J, Urso, J, Chamberlain, L, Suda, KM, Stedjan, M & McNeil, L 2023, 'Accelerating guideline dissemination in nursing homes during the COVID-19 pandemic: A patient-centered randomized controlled trial', Geriatric Nursing, vol. 51, pp. 439-445.
Moss, JL, Stoltzfus, KC, Popalis, ML, Calo, WA & Kraschnewski, JL 2023, 'Assessing the use of constructs from the consolidated framework for implementation research in U.S. rural cancer screening promotion programs: a systematic search and scoping review', BMC health services research, vol. 23, no. 1, 48.
Calo, WA, Aumiller, B, Murray, A, Crawford, L, Bermudez, M, Weaver, L, Henao, MP, Gray, NM, DeLoatch, V, Rivera-Collazo, D, Gomez, J & Kraschnewski, JL 2023, 'Expanding opportunities for chronic disease prevention for Hispanics: the Better Together REACH program in Pennsylvania', Frontiers in Public Health, vol. 11, 1134044.
Gilkey, MB, Heisler-MacKinnon, J, Boynton, MH, Calo, WA, Moss, JL & Brewer, NT 2023, 'Impact of Brief Quality Improvement Coaching on Adolescent HPV Vaccination Coverage: A Pragmatic Cluster Randomized Trial', Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 957-962.
Calo, WA, Shah, PD, Fogel, BN, Ruffin IV, MT, Moss, JL, Hausman, BL, Segel, JE, Francis, E, Schaefer, E, Bufalini, CM, Johnston, N, Hogentogler, E & Kraschnewski, JL 2023, 'Increasing the adoption of evidence-based communication practices for HPV vaccination in primary care clinics: The HPV ECHO study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial', Contemporary Clinical Trials, vol. 131, 107266.
Johnson, M, Parada, H, Ferran, K, Perez, R, Calo, W, da Luz, I, Ocasio, LM, Mendez-Lazaro, PA, Garcia, SI, Tortolero-Luna, G, Umpierre, SA & Ortiz, AP 2023, 'Perceptions of preparedness, timing of cancer diagnosis, and objective emergency preparedness among gynecological cancer patients in Puerto Rico before and after Hurricane Maria', Journal of Cancer Policy, vol. 36, 100415.
Calo, WA, Hivner, EA, Hoke, AM, Bufalini, CM, Lehman, EB & Kraschnewski, JL 2023, 'The Healthy, Immunized Communities Study: A pilot intervention to increase parents’ intentions to get vaccines for their middle school children', Vaccine: X, vol. 13, 100273.


Ssentongo, P, McCall-Hosenfeld, JS, Calo, WA, Moss, J, Lengerich, EJ, Chinchilli, VM & Ba, DM 2022, 'Association of human papillomavirus vaccination with cervical cancer screening: A systematic review and meta-analysis', Medicine (United States), vol. 101, no. 28, e29329.
Llavona-Ortiz, JY, Spanos, KE, Kraschnewski, JL, D’Souza, G, Myrick, JG, Sznajder, KK & Calo, WA 2022, 'Associations Between Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Decisions and Exposure to Vaccine Information in Social Media', Cancer Control, vol. 29.
Van Scoy, LJ, Levi, BH, Bramble, C, Calo, W, Chinchilli, VM, Currin, L, Grant, D, Hollenbeak, C, Katsaros, M, Marlin, S, Scott, AM, Tucci, A, VanDyke, E, Wasserman, E, Witt, P & Green, MJ 2022, 'Comparing two advance care planning conversation activities to motivate advance directive completion in underserved communities across the USA: The Project Talk Trial study protocol for a cluster, randomized controlled trial', Trials, vol. 23, no. 1, 829.
Calo, WA, Rivera, M, Mendez-Lazaro, PA, Garcia-Camacho, SI, Bernhardt Utz, YM, Acosta-Perez, E & Ortiz, AP 2022, 'Disruptions in Oncology Care Confronted by Patients with Gynecologic Cancer Following Hurricanes Irma and Maria in Puerto Rico', Cancer Control, vol. 29.
Calo, WA, Francis, E, Kong, L, Hogentogler, R, Heilbrunn, E, Fisher, A, Hood, N & Kraschnewski, J 2022, 'Implementing Infection Control and Quality of Life Best Practices in Nursing Homes With Project ECHO: Protocol for a Patient-Centered Randomized Controlled Trial', JMIR Research Protocols, vol. 11, no. 5, e34480.
Calo, WA, Marin, E, Aumiller, B, Murray, A, Baptiste, C, Bermudez, M, Crawford, L, DeLoatch, V & Kraschnewski, JL 2022, 'Implementing Locally Tailored Strategies to Promote Redemption of Farmers’ Market Nutrition Program Vouchers Among WIC Participants in Central Pennsylvania', Health promotion practice, vol. 23, no. 1_suppl, pp. 100S-107S.
Smith, RA, Bone, C, Visco, A, Calo, WA, Wright, J, Groff, D & Lennon, RP 2022, 'Skeptical Health Mavens May Limit COVID-19 Vaccine Diffusion: Using the Innovation Diffusion Cycle to Interpret Results of a Cross-sectional Survey among People Who are Socially Vulnerable', Journal of Health Communication, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 375-381.
Calo, WA, Lennon, RP, Ruffin IV, MT, Keller, C, Spanos, K, D'Souza, G & Kraschnewski, JL 2022, 'Support for HPV vaccine school-entry requirements in the United States: The role of exemption policies', Vaccine, vol. 40, no. 51, pp. 7426-7432.
Lennon, R, Calo, W, Miller, E, Zgierska, A, Van Scoy, L & Fraleigh, R 2022, 'Using artificial intelligence to support rapid, mixed-methods analysis: Developing an automated qualitative assistant (AQUA)', Annals of family medicine, no. 20.


Lennon, RP, Fraleigh, R, van Scoy, LJ, Keshaviah, A, Hu, XC, Snyder, BL, Miller, EL, Calo, WA, Zgierska, AE & Griffin, C 2021, 'Developing and testing an automated qualitative assistant (AQUA) to support qualitative analysis', Family Medicine and Community Health, vol. 9, e001287.
Shah, PD, Calo, WA, Gilkey, MB, Margolis, MA, Dailey, SA, Todd, KG & Brewer, NT 2021, 'Easing Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Hesitancy: A Communication Experiment With U.S. Parents', American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 88-95.
Ortiz, AP, Soto-Salgado, M, Calo, WA, Hull, P, Fernández, ME, Colon-López, V & Tortolero-Luna, G 2021, 'Elimination of cervical cancer in U.S. Hispanic populations: Puerto Rico as a case study', Preventive Medicine, vol. 144, 106336.
Méndez-Lázaro, PA, Bernhardt, YM, Calo, WA, Pacheco Díaz, AM, García-Camacho, SI, Rivera-Lugo, M, Acosta-Pérez, E, Pérez, N & Ortiz-Martínez, AP 2021, 'Environmental stressors suffered by women with gynecological cancers in the aftermath of hurricanes irma and maría in Puerto Rico', International journal of environmental research and public health, vol. 18, no. 21, 11183.
Hoke, AM, Stuckey, H, Keller, CM, Lu, Z, Hivner, EA, Calo, WA, Strick, JM & Kraschnewski, J 2021, 'In Their Own Words: Resources Needed by School Nurses to Facilitate Student Immunization Compliance', Journal of School Health, vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 218-226.
Calo, WA, Gilkey, MB, Shah, PD, Dyer, AM, Margolis, MA, Dailey, SA & Brewer, NT 2021, 'Misinformation and other elements in HPV vaccine tweets: an experimental comparison', Journal of Behavioral Medicine, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 310-319.
Spanos, KE, Kraschnewski, JL, Moss, JL, Wong, A & Calo, WA 2021, 'Parent support for social media standards combatting vaccine misinformation', Vaccine, vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 1364-1369.
Wong, A, Kraschnewski, JL, Spanos, KE, Fogel, B & Calo, WA 2021, 'Parental motivations for seeking second medical opinions for their child's HPV vaccine', Preventive Medicine Reports, vol. 24, 101550.
Hoke, AM, Keller, CM, Calo, WA, Sekhar, DL, Lehman, EB & Kraschnewski, JL 2021, 'School Nurse Perspectives on COVID-19', Journal of School Nursing, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 292-297.
Margolis, MA, Brewer, NT, Shah, PD, Calo, WA, Alton Dailey, S & Gilkey, MB 2021, 'Talking about recommended age or fewer doses: what motivates HPV vaccination timeliness?', Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 3077-3080.


Calo, WA, Doerksen, SE, Spanos, K, Pergolotti, M & Schmitz, KH 2020, 'Implementing Strength after Breast Cancer (SABC) in outpatient rehabilitation clinics: mapping clinician survey data onto key implementation outcomes', Implementation Science Communications, vol. 1, no. 1, 69.
Calo, WA, Murray, A, Francis, E, Bermudez, M & Kraschnewski, J 2020, 'Reaching the Hispanic Community About COVID-19 Through Existing Chronic Disease Prevention Programs', Preventing Chronic Disease, vol. 17, pp. 1-7.
Mama, SK, Bhuiyan, N, Foo, W, Segel, JE, Bluethmann, SM, Winkels, RM, Wiskemann, J, Calo, WA, Lengerich, EJ & Schmitz, KH 2020, 'Rural-urban differences in meeting physical activity recommendations and health status in cancer survivors in central Pennsylvania', Supportive Care in Cancer, vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 5013-5022.
Ortiz, AP, Calo, WA, Mendez-Lazaro, P, García-Camacho, S, Mercado-Casillas, A, Cabrera-Marquez, J & Tortolero-Luna, G 2020, 'Strengthening resilience and adaptive capacity to disasters in cancer control plans: lessons learned from puerto rico', Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 1290-1293.