Researcher Profile

Researcher Profile

William Calo, PhD, JD, MPH

William Calo, PhD, JD, MPH

Assistant Professor, Department of Public Health Sciences
Division of Health Services and Behavioral Research
Scientific Program:Cancer Control

Research Interests

Dr. William Calo is a Latino health services researcher. His research program examines how to adapt, implement and evaluate evidence-based interventions to improve cancer prevention and control among diverse and disadvantaged populations. Dr. Calo is currently focused on the impact of interpersonal, systems and policy strategies on HPV vaccine uptake in rural communities and the implementation of locally tailored programs to improve physical activity, nutrition and community-clinical linkages. He applies implementation science methodologies in his studies.

  • Vaccination
  • Puerto Rico
  • Papillomavirus Vaccines
  • Hispanic Americans
  • Parents
  • Neoplasms
  • Communication
  • Population
  • Incidence
  • Vaccines
  • Mortality
  • Health

Recent Publications


Shah, PD, Calo, WA, Gilkey, MB, Margolis, MA, Dailey, SA, Todd, KG & Brewer, NT 2021, 'Easing Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Hesitancy: A Communication Experiment With U.S. Parents', American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 88-95.
Ortiz, AP, Soto-Salgado, M, Calo, WA, Hull, P, Fernández, ME, Colon-López, V & Tortolero-Luna, G 2021, 'Elimination of cervical cancer in U.S. Hispanic populations: Puerto Rico as a case study', Preventive Medicine, vol. 144, 106336.
Hoke, AM, Stuckey, H, Keller, CM, Lu, Z, Hivner, EA, Calo, WA, Strick, JM & Kraschnewski, J 2021, 'In Their Own Words: Resources Needed by School Nurses to Facilitate Student Immunization Compliance', Journal of School Health, vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 218-226.
Calo, WA, Gilkey, MB, Shah, PD, Dyer, AM, Margolis, MA, Dailey, SA & Brewer, NT 2021, 'Misinformation and other elements in HPV vaccine tweets: an experimental comparison', Journal of Behavioral Medicine, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 310-319.
Spanos, KE, Kraschnewski, JL, Moss, JL, Wong, A & Calo, WA 2021, 'Parent support for social media standards combatting vaccine misinformation', Vaccine, vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 1364-1369.
Hoke, AM, Keller, CM, Calo, WA, Sekhar, DL, Lehman, EB & Kraschnewski, JL 2021, 'School Nurse Perspectives on COVID-19', Journal of School Nursing, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 292-297.
Margolis, MA, Brewer, NT, Shah, PD, Calo, WA, Alton Dailey, S & Gilkey, MB 2021, 'Talking about recommended age or fewer doses: what motivates HPV vaccination timeliness?', Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 3077-3080.


Calo, WA, Murray, A, Francis, E, Bermudez, M & Kraschnewski, J 2020, 'Reaching the Hispanic Community About COVID-19 Through Existing Chronic Disease Prevention Programs', Preventing Chronic Disease, vol. 17, pp. 1-7.
Mama, SK, Bhuiyan, N, Foo, W, Segel, JE, Bluethmann, SM, Winkels, RM, Wiskemann, J, Calo, WA, Lengerich, EJ & Schmitz, KH 2020, 'Rural-urban differences in meeting physical activity recommendations and health status in cancer survivors in central Pennsylvania', Supportive Care in Cancer, vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 5013-5022.
Ortiz, AP, Calo, WA, Mendez-Lazaro, P, García-Camacho, S, Mercado-Casillas, A, Cabrera-Marquez, J & Tortolero-Luna, G 2020, 'Strengthening resilience and adaptive capacity to disasters in cancer control plans: lessons learned from puerto rico', Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 1290-1293.


Calo, WA, Gilkey, MB, Leeman, J, Heisler-MacKinnon, J, Averette, C, Sanchez, S, Kornides, ML & Brewer, NT 2019, 'Coaching primary care clinics for HPV vaccination quality improvement: Comparing in-person and webinar implementation', Translational behavioral medicine, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 23-31.
Spencer, JC, Calo, WA & Brewer, NT 2019, 'Disparities and reverse disparities in HPV vaccination: A systematic review and meta-analysis', Preventive Medicine, vol. 123, pp. 197-203.
Calo, WA & Brewer, NT 2020, 'HPV vaccine requirements, opt-outs and providers’ support: Key studies missing from a recent systematic review', Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 128-130.
Calo, WA, Shah, PD, Gilkey, MB, Vanderpool, RC, Barden, S, Doucette, WR & Brewer, NT 2019, 'Implementing pharmacy-located HPV vaccination: findings from pilot projects in five U.S. states', Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, vol. 15, no. 7-8, pp. 1831-1838.
Shah, PD, Calo, WA, Gilkey, MB, Boynton, MH, Dailey, SA, Todd, KG, Robichaud, MO, Margolis, MA & Brewer, NT 2019, 'Questions and concerns about HPV vaccine: A communication experiment', Pediatrics, vol. 143, no. 2, e20181872.
Margolis, MA, Brewer, NT, Shah, PD, Calo, WA & Gilkey, MB 2019, 'Stories about HPV vaccine in social media, traditional media, and conversations', Preventive Medicine, vol. 118, pp. 251-256.


Calo, WA, Gilkey, MB, Malo, TL, Robichaud, M & Brewer, NT 2018, 'A content analysis of HPV vaccination messages available online', Vaccine, vol. 36, no. 49, pp. 7525-7529.
Fernandez, ME, Walker, TJ, Weiner, BJ, Calo, WA, Liang, S, Risendal, B, Friedman, DB, Tu, SP, Williams, RS, Jacobs, S, Herrmann, AK & Kegler, MC 2018, 'Developing measures to assess constructs from the Inner Setting domain of the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research', Implementation Science, vol. 13, no. 1, 52.
Shah, PD, Calo, WA, Marciniak, MW, Golin, CE, Sleath, BL & Brewer, NT 2018, 'Service quality and parents' willingness to get adolescents HPV vaccine from pharmacists', Preventive Medicine, vol. 109, pp. 106-112.
Shah, PD, Calo, WA, Marciniak, MW, Gilkey, MB & Brewer, NT 2018, 'Support for pharmacist-provided HPV vaccination: National surveys of U.S. Physicians and parents', Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 970-978.


McCarthy, SH, Walmer, KA, Boggan, JC, Gichane, MW, Calo, WA, Beauvais, HA & Brewer, NT 2017, 'Awareness of Cervical Cancer Causes and Predeterminants of Likelihood to Screen among Women in Haiti', Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 37-41.
Correa-Fernández, V, Díaz-Toro, EC, Reitzel, LR, Guo, L, Chen, M, Li, Y, Calo, WA, Shih, YCT & Wetter, DW 2017, 'Combined treatment for at-risk drinking and smoking cessation among Puerto Ricans: A randomized clinical trial', Addictive Behaviors, vol. 65, pp. 185-192.
Colón-López, V, Fernández-Espada, N, Vélez, C, Gonzalez, VJ, Diaz-Toro, EC, Calo, WA, Savas, LS, Pattatucci, A & Fernández, ME 2017, 'Communication about sex and HPV among Puerto Rican mothers and daughters', Ethnicity and Health, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 348-360.
Colón-López, V, González, D, Vélez, C, Fernández-Espada, N, Feldman-Soler, A, Ayala-Escobar, K, Ayala-Marín, AM, Soto-Salgado, M, Calo, WA, Pattatucci-Aragón, A, Rivera-Díaz, M & Fernández, ME 2017, 'Community-academic partnership to implement a Breast and Cervical Cancer screening education program in Puerto Rico', Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 191-197.
Gichane, MW, Calo, WA, McCarthy, SH, Walmer, KA, Boggan, JC & Brewer, NT 2017, 'Human Papillomavirus Awareness in Haiti: Preparing for a National HPV Vaccination Program', Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 96-101.
Gilkey, MB, Calo, WA, Marciniak, MW & Brewer, NT 2017, 'Parents who refuse or delay HPV vaccine: Differences in vaccination behavior, beliefs, and clinical communication preferences', Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 680-686.
Calo, WA, Gilkey, MB, Shah, P, Marciniak, MW & Brewer, NT 2017, 'Parents' willingness to get human papillomavirus vaccination for their adolescent children at a pharmacy', Preventive Medicine, vol. 99, pp. 251-256.
Kornides, ML, Calo, WA, Heisler-MacKinnon, JA & Gilkey, MB 2018, 'U.S. Primary Care Clinics’ Experiences During Introduction of the 9-Valent HPV Vaccine', Journal of Community Health, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 291-296.

Clinical Trials Search

Children (age < 18 years)
Adults (age >= 18 years)