Researcher Profile

Researcher Profile

Mack Ruffin, MD, MPH

Mack Ruffin, MD, MPH

Hershey Company Professor, Dr. and Mrs. Forney P. George Fellow and Chair, Department of Family and Community Medicine
Professor, Department of Public Health Sciences
Scientific Program:Cancer Control

Research Interests

Dr. Mack Ruffin’s research has focused on cancer prevention and control with emphasis on cervical, colorectal and pancreatic cancer. His research spans rural community trials, practice transformation, individual patient clinical trials, early detection biomarkers discovery and validation trials and dissemination studies. He is currently focused on stool microbiome as a screening strategy for colorectal cancer; community and practice intervention to promotion HPV vaccine series initiation and completion; HPV self-sampling as a new strategy to get women to engage in checking for cervical cancer; and validation of new blood, urine and stool markers for screening for colorectal cancer.

  • Colorectal Neoplasms
  • Neoplasms
  • Early Detection of Cancer
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
  • Primary Health Care
  • Biomarkers
  • Serum
  • Health
  • Population
  • Physicians
  • Breast Neoplasms
  • Prostatic Neoplasms

Recent Publications


Shen, Y, Sen, A, Turgeon, DK, Ren, J, Graifman, G, Ruffin, MT, Smith, WL, Brenner, DE & Djuric, Z 2021, 'Changes in Serum, Red Blood Cell, and Colonic Fatty Acids in a Personalized Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Trial', Nutrition and cancer.
Moss, JL, Popalis, M, Ramirez, S, Reedy-Cooper, A & Ruffin, MT 2021, 'Disparities in Cancer Screening: The Role of County-Level Metropolitan Status and Racial Residential Segregation', Journal of Community Health.
Hughes, A, Dahmus, J, Rivas, G, Hummer, B, Chen See, JR, Wright, JR, Lamendella, R, Schmitz, KH, Sciamanna, C, Ruffin, M, Patterson, AD, Loomba, R & Stine, JG 2021, 'Exercise Training Reverses Gut Dysbiosis in Patients With Biopsy-Proven Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis: A Proof of Concept Study', Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 1723-1725.
Manzor Mitrzyk, B, Plegue, MA, Kadri, R, Danak, SU, Hubbard, JD, Kaip, EA, Roberson, DN, Ellingrod, VL, Farris, KB, Ruffin, MT, Klinkman, MS & Buis, LR 2021, 'Pharmacogenomic testing for mental health (Part I): Documenting early adopter perceptions of use for eight scenarios', Personalized Medicine, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 223-232.
Manzor Mitrzyk, B, Plegue, MA, Kadri, R, Danak, SU, Hubbard, JD, Kaip, EA, Roberson, DN, Roy, S, Guetterman, TC, Ellingrod, VL, Farris, KB, Ruffin Iv, MT, Klinkman, MS & Buis, LR 2021, 'Pharmacogenomic testing for mental health (Part II): Qualitative analysis of early adopter prescriber perceptions', Personalized Medicine, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 233-240.


Topçuoğlu, BD, Lesniak, NA, Ruffin, MT, Wiens, J & Schloss, PD 2020, 'A framework for effective application of machine learning to microbiome-based classification problems', mBio, vol. 11, no. 3, e00434-20.
Paskett, ED, Pennell, ML, Ruffin, MT, Weghorst, CM, Lu, B, Hade, EM, Peng, J, Bernardo, BM & Wewers, ME 2020, 'A multi-level model to understand cervical cancer disparities in appalachia', Cancer Prevention Research, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 223-228.
Sen, A, Zhao, L, Djuric, Z, Turgeon, DK, Ruffin, MT, Smith, WL, Brenner, DE & Normolle, DP 2020, 'An Adaptive Bayesian Design for Personalized Dosing in a Cancer Prevention Trial', American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. e167-e173.
Emlet, C, Ruffin, M & Lamendella, R 2020, 'Enteric Virome and Carcinogenesis in the Gut', Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 852-864.
Roy, S, Moss, JL, Rodriguez-Colon, SM, Shen, C, Cooper, JD, Lennon, RP, Lengerich, EJ, Adelman, A, Curry, W & Ruffin, MT 2020, 'Examining Older Adults’ Attitudes and Perceptions of Cancer Screening and Overscreening: A Qualitative Study', Journal of Primary Care and Community Health, vol. 11.
Riley, TD, Curry, WJ, Beck, MJ, Berg, A & Ruffin, MT 2020, 'Feasibility of nonanonymous burnout surveys in a large academic department', Family medicine, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 278-281.
Moss, JL, Roy, S, Shen, C, Cooper, JD, Lennon, RP, Lengerich, EJ, Adelman, A, Curry, W & Ruffin, MT 2020, 'Geographic Variation in Overscreening for Colorectal, Cervical, and Breast Cancer Among Older Adults', JAMA network open, vol. 3, no. 7, pp. e2011645.
Lennon, RP, Sakya, SM, Miller, EL, Snyder, B, Yaman, T, Zgierska, AE, Ruffin, MT & Van Scoy, LJ 2020, 'Public Intent to Comply with COVID-19 Public Health Recommendations', Health literacy research and practice, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. e161-e165.


Sze, MA, Topçuoğlu, BD, Lesniak, NA, Ruffin, MT & Schloss, PD 2019, 'Fecal short-chain fatty acids are not predictive of colonic tumor status and cannot be predicted based on bacterial community structure', mBio, vol. 10, no. 4, e01454-19.
Djuric, Z, Bassis, CM, Plegue, MA, Sen, A, Turgeon, DK, Herman, K, Young, VB, Brenner, DE & Ruffin, MT 2019, 'Increases in colonic bacterial diversity after ω-3 fatty acid supplementation predict decreased colonic prostaglandin E2 concentrations in healthy adults', Journal of Nutrition, vol. 149, no. 7, pp. 1170-1179.
Knobloch, TJ, Peng, J, Hade, EM, Cohn, DE, Ruffin, MT, Schiano, MA, Calhoun, BC, McBee, WC, Lesnock, JL, Gallion, HH, Pollock, J, Lu, B, Oghumu, S, Zhang, Z, Sears, MT, Ogbemudia, BE, Perrault, JT, Weghorst, LC, Strawser, E, DeGraffinreid, CR, Paskett, ED & Weghorst, CM 2019, 'Inherited alterations of TGF beta signaling components in Appalachian cervical cancers', Cancer Causes and Control, vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 1087-1100.
Jimbo, M, Sen, A, Plegue, MA, Hawley, S, Kelly-Blake, K, Rapai, M, Zhang, M, Zhang, Y, Xie, X & Ruffin, MT 2019, 'Interactivity in a Decision Aid: Findings From a Decision Aid to Technologically Enhance Shared Decision Making RCT', American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 77-86.
Reiter, PL, Shoben, AB, McDonough, D, Ruffin, MT, Steinau, M, Unger, ER, Paskett, ED & Katz, ML 2019, 'Results of a Pilot Study of a Mail-Based Human Papillomavirus Self-Testing Program for Underscreened Women from Appalachian Ohio', Sexually transmitted diseases, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 185-190.
Mitrzyk, BM, Kadri, R, Farris, KB, Ellingrod, VL, Klinkman, MS, Ruffin, MT, Plegue, MA & Buis, LR 2019, 'Using pharmacogenomic testing in primary care: Protocol for a pilot randomized controlled study', JMIR Research Protocols, vol. 8, no. 8, e13848.
Ruffin, MT & Hausman, BL 2019, 'Vaccine refusals and regulations', Family medicine, vol. 51, no. 9, pp. 786.


Wu, JP, Damschroder, LJ, Fetters, MD, Zikmund-Fisher, BJ, Crabtree, BF, Hudson, SV, Ruffin, MT, Fucinari, J, Kang, M, Susan Taichman, L & Creswell, JW 2018, 'A web-based decision tool to improve contraceptive counseling for women with chronic medical conditions: Protocol for a mixed methods implementation study', JMIR Research Protocols, vol. 7, no. 4, e107.
Hannigan, GD, Duhaime, MB, Ruffin, MT, Koumpouras, CC & Schloss, PD 2018, 'Diagnostic potential and interactive dynamics of the colorectal cancer virome', mBio, vol. 9, no. 6, e02248-18.
Wilson, MJ, Sen, A, Bridges, D, Turgeon, DK, Brenner, DE, Smith, WL, Ruffin, MT & Djuric, Z 2018, 'Higher baseline expression of the PTGS2 gene and greater decreases in total colonic fatty acid content predict greater decreases in colonic prostaglandin-E2 concentrations after dietary supplementation with ω-3 fatty acids', Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, vol. 139, pp. 14-19.
Flynn, KJ, Ruffin, MT, Kim Turgeon, D & Schloss, PD 2018, 'Spatial variation of the native colon microbiota in healthy adults', Cancer Prevention Research, vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 393-401.


Djuric, Z, Bassis, CM, Plegue, MA, Ren, J, Chan, R, Sidahmed, EK, Turgeon, DK, Ruffin, MT, Kato, I & Sen, A 2018, 'Colonic Mucosal Bacteria Are Associated with Inter-Individual Variability in Serum Carotenoid Concentrations', Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, vol. 118, no. 4, pp. 606-616.e3.
Jimbo, M, Sen, A, Plegue, MA, Hawley, ST, Kelly-Blake, K, Rapai, M, Zhang, M, Zhang, Y & Ruffin, MT 2017, 'Correlates of Patient Intent and Preference on Colorectal Cancer Screening', American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 443-450.
Roberts, JS, Gornick, MC, Carere, DA, Uhlmann, WR, Ruffin, MT & Green, RC 2017, 'Direct-to-consumer genetic testing: User motivations, decision making, and perceived utility of results', Public health genomics, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 36-45.
Presser, BE, Katz, ML, Shoben, AB, Moore, D, Ruffin, MT, Paskett, ED & Reiter, PL 2018, 'Effects of an Education Intervention about HPV Self-Testing for Healthcare Providers and Staff', Journal of Cancer Education, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 954-959.
Sze, MA, Baxter, NT, Ruffin, MT, Rogers, MAM & Schloss, PD 2017, 'Normalization of the microbiota in patients after treatment for colonic lesions', Microbiome, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 150.
Gray, SW, Gollust, SE, Carere, DA, Chen, CA, Cronin, A, Kalia, SS, Rana, HQ, Ruffin Iv, MT, Wang, C, Roberts, JS & Green, RC 2017, 'Personal genomic testing for cancer risk: Results from the impact of personal genomics study', Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 636-644.
PGen Study Group 2017, 'Prescription medication changes following direct-to-consumer personal genomic testing: Findings from the Impact of Personal Genomics (PGen) Study', Genetics in Medicine, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 537-545.
Brook, MJ, Christian, LM, Hade, EM & Ruffin, MT 2017, 'The Effect of Perceived Stress on Epstein-Barr Virus Antibody Titers in Appalachian Ohio Women', NeuroImmunoModulation, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 67-73.
Djuric, Z, Turgeon, DK, Sen, A, Ren, J, Herman, K, Ramaswamy, D, Zhao, L, Ruffin, MT, Normolle, DP, Smith, WL & Brenner, DE 2017, 'The anti-inflammatory effect of personalized omega-3 fatty acid dosing for reducing prostaglandin E2 in the colonic mucosa is attenuated in obesity', Cancer Prevention Research, vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 729-737.

Clinical Trials Search

Children (age < 18 years)
Adults (age >= 18 years)