Researcher Profile

Researcher Profile

Mack Ruffin, MD, MPH

Mack Ruffin, MD, MPH

The Hershey Company Professorship and Department Chair, Department of Family and Community Medicine
Dr. & Mrs. Forney P. George Fellowship, Department of Family and Community Medicine
Scientific Program:Cancer Control

Research Interests

Dr. Mack Ruffin’s research has focused on cancer prevention and control with emphasis on cervical, colorectal and pancreatic cancer. His research spans rural community trials, practice transformation, individual patient clinical trials, early detection biomarkers discovery and validation trials and dissemination studies. He is currently focused on stool microbiome as a screening strategy for colorectal cancer; community and practice intervention to promotion HPV vaccine series initiation and completion; HPV self-sampling as a new strategy to get women to engage in checking for cervical cancer; and validation of new blood, urine and stool markers for screening for colorectal cancer.

  • Colorectal Neoplasms
  • Neoplasms
  • Early Detection of Cancer
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
  • Primary Health Care
  • Biomarkers
  • Serum
  • Health
  • Population
  • Prostatic Neoplasms
  • Breast Neoplasms
  • Physicians

Recent Publications


Topçuoğlu, BD, Lesniak, NA, Ruffin, MT, Wiens, J & Schloss, PD 2020, 'A framework for effective application of machine learning to microbiome-based classification problems', mBio, vol. 11, no. 3, e00434-20.
Paskett, ED, Pennell, ML, Ruffin, MT, Weghorst, CM, Lu, B, Hade, EM, Peng, J, Bernardo, BM & Wewers, ME 2020, 'A multi-level model to understand cervical cancer disparities in appalachia', Cancer Prevention Research, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 223-228.
Emlet, C, Ruffin, M & Lamendella, R 2020, 'Enteric Virome and Carcinogenesis in the Gut', Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 852-864.
Riley, TD, Curry, WJ, Beck, MJ, Berg, A & Ruffin, MT 2020, 'Feasibility of nonanonymous burnout surveys in a large academic department', Family medicine, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 278-281.
Moss, JL, Roy, S, Shen, C, Cooper, JD, Lennon, RP, Lengerich, E, Adelman, A, Curry, W & Ruffin, MT 2020, 'Geographic Variation in Overscreening for Colorectal, Cervical, and Breast Cancer Among Older Adults', JAMA network open, vol. 3, no. 7, pp. e2011645.


Sze, MA, Topçuoğlu, BD, Lesniak, NA, Ruffin, MT & Schloss, PD 2019, 'Fecal short-chain fatty acids are not predictive of colonic tumor status and cannot be predicted based on bacterial community structure', mBio, vol. 10, no. 4, e01454-19.
Djuric, Z, Bassis, CM, Plegue, MA, Sen, A, Turgeon, DK, Herman, K, Young, VB, Brenner, DE & Ruffin, MT 2019, 'Increases in colonic bacterial diversity after ω-3 fatty acid supplementation predict decreased colonic prostaglandin E2 concentrations in healthy adults', Journal of Nutrition, vol. 149, no. 7, pp. 1170-1179.
Knobloch, TJ, Peng, J, Hade, EM, Cohn, DE, Ruffin, MT, Schiano, MA, Calhoun, BC, McBee, WC, Lesnock, JL, Gallion, HH, Pollock, J, Lu, B, Oghumu, S, Zhang, Z, Sears, MT, Ogbemudia, BE, Perrault, JT, Weghorst, LC, Strawser, E, DeGraffinreid, CR, Paskett, ED & Weghorst, CM 2019, 'Inherited alterations of TGF beta signaling components in Appalachian cervical cancers', Cancer Causes and Control, vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 1087-1100.
Jimbo, M, Sen, A, Plegue, MA, Hawley, S, Kelly-Blake, K, Rapai, M, Zhang, M, Zhang, Y, Xie, X & Ruffin, MT 2019, 'Interactivity in a Decision Aid: Findings From a Decision Aid to Technologically Enhance Shared Decision Making RCT', American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 77-86.
Reiter, PL, Shoben, AB, McDonough, D, Ruffin, MT, Steinau, M, Unger, ER, Paskett, ED & Katz, ML 2019, 'Results of a Pilot Study of a Mail-Based Human Papillomavirus Self-Testing Program for Underscreened Women from Appalachian Ohio', Sexually transmitted diseases, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 185-190.
Mitrzyk, BM, Kadri, R, Farris, KB, Ellingrod, VL, Klinkman, MS, Ruffin, MT, Plegue, MA & Buis, LR 2019, 'Using pharmacogenomic testing in primary care: Protocol for a pilot randomized controlled study', Journal of medical Internet research, vol. 21, no. 8, e13848.
Ruffin, MT & Hausman, BL 2019, 'Vaccine refusals and regulations', Family medicine, vol. 51, no. 9.


Wu, JP, Damschroder, LJ, Fetters, MD, Zikmund-Fisher, BJ, Crabtree, BF, Hudson, SV, Ruffin, MT, Fucinari, J, Kang, M, Susan Taichman, L & Creswell, JW 2018, 'A web-based decision tool to improve contraceptive counseling for women with chronic medical conditions: Protocol for a mixed methods implementation study', Journal of medical Internet research, vol. 20, no. 4, e107.
Hannigan, GD, Duhaime, MB, Ruffin, MT, Koumpouras, CC & Schloss, PD 2018, 'Diagnostic potential and interactive dynamics of the colorectal cancer virome', mBio, vol. 9, no. 6, e02248-18.
Wilson, MJ, Sen, A, Bridges, D, Turgeon, DK, Brenner, DE, Smith, WL, Ruffin, MT & Djuric, Z 2018, 'Higher baseline expression of the PTGS2 gene and greater decreases in total colonic fatty acid content predict greater decreases in colonic prostaglandin-E2 concentrations after dietary supplementation with ω-3 fatty acids', Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, vol. 139, pp. 14-19.
Flynn, KJ, Ruffin, MT, Kim Turgeon, D & Schloss, PD 2018, 'Spatial variation of the native colon microbiota in healthy adults', Cancer Prevention Research, vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 393-401.


Djuric, Z, Bassis, CM, Plegue, MA, Ren, J, Chan, R, Sidahmed, EK, Turgeon, DK, Ruffin, MT, Kato, I & Sen, A 2018, 'Colonic Mucosal Bacteria Are Associated with Inter-Individual Variability in Serum Carotenoid Concentrations', Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, vol. 118, no. 4, pp. 606-616.e3.
Jimbo, M, Sen, A, Plegue, MA, Hawley, ST, Kelly-Blake, K, Rapai, M, Zhang, M, Zhang, Y & Ruffin, MT 2017, 'Correlates of Patient Intent and Preference on Colorectal Cancer Screening', American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 443-450.
Roberts, JS, Gornick, MC, Carere, DA, Uhlmann, WR, Ruffin, MT & Green, RC 2017, 'Direct-to-consumer genetic testing: User motivations, decision making, and perceived utility of results', Public health genomics, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 36-45.
Presser, BE, Katz, ML, Shoben, AB, Moore, D, Ruffin, MT, Paskett, ED & Reiter, PL 2018, 'Effects of an Education Intervention about HPV Self-Testing for Healthcare Providers and Staff', Journal of Cancer Education, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 954-959.
Sze, MA, Baxter, NT, Ruffin, MT, Rogers, MAM & Schloss, PD 2017, 'Normalization of the microbiota in patients after treatment for colonic lesions', Microbiome, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 150.
Gray, SW, Gollust, SE, Carere, DA, Chen, CA, Cronin, A, Kalia, SS, Rana, HQ, Ruffin Iv, MT, Wang, C, Roberts, JS & Green, RC 2017, 'Personal genomic testing for cancer risk: Results from the impact of personal genomics study', Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 636-644.
PGen Study Group 2017, 'Prescription medication changes following direct-to-consumer personal genomic testing: Findings from the Impact of Personal Genomics (PGen) Study', Genetics in Medicine, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 537-545.
Brook, MJ, Christian, LM, Hade, EM & Ruffin, MT 2017, 'The Effect of Perceived Stress on Epstein-Barr Virus Antibody Titers in Appalachian Ohio Women', NeuroImmunoModulation, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 67-73.
Djuric, Z, Turgeon, DK, Sen, A, Ren, J, Herman, K, Ramaswamy, D, Zhao, L, Ruffin, MT, Normolle, DP, Smith, WL & Brenner, DE 2017, 'The anti-inflammatory effect of personalized omega-3 fatty acid dosing for reducing prostaglandin E2 in the colonic mucosa is attenuated in obesity', Cancer Prevention Research, vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 729-737.


Ewigman, B, Davis, A, Vansaghi, T, Cole, A, deGruy, F, Green, L, King, D, Kuzel, T, Lindbloom, E, Meadows, L, Miser, F, Nease, D & Ruffin, M 2016, 'Building research & scholarship capacity in departments of family medicine: A new joint ADFM-NAPCRG initiative', Annals of family medicine, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 82-83.
Sidahmed, EK, Sen, A, Ren, J, Patel, A, Turgeon, DK, Ruffin, MT, Brenner, DE & Djuric, Z 2016, 'Colonic Saturated Fatty Acid Concentrations and Expression of COX-1, but not Diet, Predict Prostaglandin E2 in Normal Human Colon Tissue', Nutrition and cancer, vol. 68, no. 7, pp. 1192-1201.
for the Impact of Personal Genomics Study Group 2016, 'Consumer perceptions of interactions with primary care providers after direct-to-consumer personal genomic testing', Annals of internal medicine, vol. 164, no. 8, pp. 513-522.
Baxter, NT, Koumpouras, CC, Rogers, MAM, Ruffin, MT & Schloss, PD 2016, 'DNA from fecal immunochemical test can replace stool for detection of colonic lesions using a microbiota-based model', Microbiome, vol. 4, 59.
Young, AP, De La, MSD & Ruffin, MT 2016, Diseases of the pancreas. in Family Medicine: Principles and Practice. Springer International Publishing, pp. 1157-1166.
PGen Study Group 2016, 'Implications of personal genomic testing for health behaviors: The case of smoking', Nicotine and Tobacco Research, vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 2273-2277.
Umoh, FI, Kato, I, Ren, J, Wachowiak, PL, Ruffin, MT, Turgeon, DK, Sen, A, Brenner, DE & Djuric, Z 2016, 'Markers of systemic exposures to products of intestinal bacteria in a dietary intervention study', European Journal of Nutrition, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 793-798.
Baxter, NT, Ruffin, MT, Rogers, MAM & Schloss, PD 2016, 'Microbiota-based model improves the sensitivity of fecal immunochemical test for detecting colonic lesions', Genome Medicine, vol. 8, no. 1, 37.
Pendleton, ME, Ruffin, M & Harper, DM 2016, 'No evidence in US of HPV16/18 cancer precursor reduction', Vaccine, vol. 34, no. 2.

Clinical Trials Search

Children (age < 18 years)
Adults (age >= 18 years)