Researcher Profile

Researcher Profile

Michael Green, MS, MD

Michael Green, MS, MD

Professor, Department of Humanities
Professor, Department of Medicine
Division of General Internal Medicine
Scientific Program:Cancer Control

Research Interests

Dr. Michael Green joined the faculty of Penn State College of Medicine in 1996. His research has focused on decision-making, bioethics and communication, and has received funding through the NIH, the American Cancer Society and several foundations.

Most recently, Dr. Green’s research has focused on helping patients and their family members make informed decisions at the end-of-life. Together with long-time collaborator Dr. Benjamin Levi, Dr. Green is the co-creator of “Making Your Wishes Known,” an interactive computer-based decision aid that helps individuals be better prepared to make medical decisions when they can no longer speak for themselves. In diverse populations and settings, this decision aid has been shown to reliably and accurately represent patients’ wishes for life-sustaining care, to help physicians more accurately predict what patients would want, and to increase concordance between what spokespersons would choose on behalf of patients and what patients say they would actually want.

Dr. Green also is a pioneer in the use of comics in medical education. He helped establish the field of “Graphic Medicine” and has published landmark articles on the topic as well as being one of the authors of the Graphic Medicine Manifesto from Penn State University Press. He is guest editor of the Graphic Medicine section of the Annals of Internal Medicine, and he teaches a course on Comics and Medicine to 4th-year medical students, whose comics can be viewed online.

In the area of professionalism and medical training, Dr. Green has authored several important articles on truth-telling, professional identify formation, informed consent and communication, and is co-author of the book Breaking the Cycle: How to Turn Conflict into Collaboration When You and Your Patients Disagree from ACP Press.

  • Advance Care Planning
  • Decision Support Techniques
  • Physicians
  • Software
  • Neoplasms
  • Randomized Controlled Trials
  • Decision Making
  • Breast Neoplasms
  • Advance Directives
  • Genetic Testing
  • Medical Students
  • Students

Clinical Trials

Nurse AMIE: A Tablet Based Supportive Care Platform in Metastatic Breast Cancer (AMIE = Addressing Metastatic Individuals Everyday)

Recent Publications


Thiede, E, Levi, BH, Lipnick, D, Johnson, R, Seo La, I, Lehman, EB, Smith, T, Wiegand, D, Green, M & Van Scoy, LJ 2021, 'Effect of Advance Care Planning on Surrogate Decision Makers' Preparedness for Decision Making: Results of a Mixed-Methods Randomized Controlled Trial', Journal of palliative medicine, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 982-993.
Simmons, DB, Levi, BH, Green, MJ, La, IS, Lipnick, D, Smith, TJ, Thiede, ER, Wiegand, DL & Van Scoy, L 2021, 'What Surrogates Understand (and Don’t Understand) About Patients’ Wishes After Engaging Advance Care Planning: A Qualitative Analysis', American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine.


Van Scoy, LJ, Levi, BH, Witt, P, Bramble, C, Richardson, C, Putzig, I, Levi, AR, Wasserman, E, Chinchilli, V, Tucci, A & Green, MJ 2020, 'Association of Participation in an End-of-Life Conversation Game With Advance Care Planning Behavior and Perspectives Among African American Individuals', JAMA network open, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. e204315.
Green, MJ & Wall, S 2020, 'Graphic medicine—the best of 2020', JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 324, no. 24, pp. 2469-2471.
Van Scoy, LJ, Green, MJ, Witt, PD, Bramble, C, Richardson, C, Putzig, I, Toyobo, O, Wasserman, E, Chinchilli, VM, Tucci, A & Levi, BH 2021, 'Low Skepticism and Positive Attitudes About Advance Care Planning Among African Americans: a National, Mixed Methods Cohort Study', Journal of general internal medicine, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 705-712.
Lipnick, D, Green, M, Thiede, E, Smith, TJ, Lehman, EB, Johnson, R, La, IS, Wiegand, D, Levi, BH & Van Scoy, LJ 2020, 'Surrogate Decision Maker Stress in Advance Care Planning Conversations: A Mixed-Methods Analysis From a Randomized Controlled Trial', Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 1117-1126.
Vidt, ME, Potochny, J, Dodge, D, Green, M, Sturgeon, K, Kass, R & Schmitz, KH 2020, 'The influence of mastectomy and reconstruction on residual upper limb function in breast cancer survivors', Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, vol. 182, no. 3, pp. 531-541.
Green, MJ, Croskerry, P & Rieck, R 2020, 'Web Exclusive. Annals Graphic Medicine - Bed Blocker', Annals of internal medicine, vol. 172, no. 11, pp. W142-W148.


Schubart, JR, Levi, B, Bain, MM, Farace, E & Green, M 2019, 'Advance care planning among patients with advanced cancer', Journal of oncology practice, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. E65-E73.
Van Scoy, L, Green, M & Volpe, R 2019, 'Evaluating an Advance Care Planning Curriculum: a Lecture, a Game, a Patient, and an Essay', Medical Science Educator, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 453-462.
Green, MJ, Plotkin, LH & Noe, MN 2019, 'Graphic Medicine - The Best of 2019', JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 322, no. 24, pp. 2368-2370.
Foy, A, Levi, B, Van Scoy, L, Bucher, A, Dimmock, A & Green, M 2019, 'Patient preference to accept medical treatment is associated with spokesperson agreement', Annals of the American Thoracic Society, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 518-521.
Green, MJ, Van Scoy, LJ, Foy, AJ, Dimmock, AEF, Lehman, E & Levi, BH 2020, 'Patients With Advanced Cancer Choose Less Aggressive Medical Treatment on Vignettes After Using a Computer-Based Decision Aid', American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine, vol. 37, no. 7, pp. 537-541.
Green, MJ 2019, 'Reimagining the cape: Exploring new metaphors for emerging medical professionals', Annals of internal medicine, vol. 170, no. 3, pp. 205-206.
Myers, KR, George, DR, Huang, X, Goldenberg, MDF, Van Scoy, LJ, Lehman, E & Green, MJ 2019, 'Use of a Graphic Memoir to Enhance Clinicians' Understanding of and Empathy for Patients with Parkinson Disease', The Permanente journal, vol. 24.


Stewart, RR, Dimmock, AEF, Green, MJ, Van Scoy, LJ, Schubart, JR, Yang, C, Farace, E, Bascom, R & Levi, BH 2019, 'An Analysis of Recruitment Efficiency for an End-of-Life Advance Care Planning Randomized Controlled Trial', American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 50-54.
Van Scoy, LJ, Watson-Martin, E, Bohr, TA, Levi, BH & Green, MJ 2018, 'End-of-Life Conversation Game Increases Confidence for Having End-of-Life Conversations for Chaplains-in-Training', American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 592-600.
George, DR, de Boer, C, Hammer, J, Hopkins, M, King, T & Green, MJ 2018, 'Evaluating the benefits of hospital room artwork for patients receiving cancer treatment: A randomized controlled trial', Journal of Hospital Medicine, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 558-561.
Schubart, JR, Reading, JM, Penrod, J, Stewart, RR, Sampath, R, Lehmann, LS, Levi, BH & Green, MJ 2018, 'Family Caregivers’ Characterization of Conversations Following an ACP Event', American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine, vol. 35, no. 9, pp. 1161-1167.
Green, M & Mahato, M 2018, 'Graphic Medicine: The Best of 2018', JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 320, no. 24, pp. 2510-2511.
Volpe, RL & Green, MJ 2018, 'Medical Schools Should Admit More Guitar Players', Journal of general internal medicine, pp. 1-2.
McCormick, JB, Green, MJ & Shapiro, D 2018, 'Medication Nonadherence: There's an App for That!', Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 93, no. 10, pp. 1346-1350.
Andrews, H, Soni, A, Green, M, Ely, A & Quillen, D 2018, 'Parent attitudes toward resident involvement in their child's strabismus surgery', Journal of AAPOS, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 262-265.e3.
Volpe, RL, Mrozowski, S & Green, MJ 2018, 'Should Trainees Get Paid to Submit Patient Safety Reports?', Journal of graduate medical education, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 676-677.


George, D, De Boer, C & Green, M 2017, '"that Landscape Is Where I'd Like to Be" offering patients with cancer a choice of artwork', JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 317, no. 9, pp. 890-892.
Green, MJ, Van Scoy, LJ, Foy, AJ, Stewart, RR, Sampath, R, Schubart, JR, Lehman, EB, Dimmock, AEF, Bucher, AM, Lehmann, LS, Harlow, AF, Yang, C & Levi, BH 2018, 'A Randomized Controlled Trial of Strategies to Improve Family Members’ Preparedness for Surrogate Decision-Making', American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 866-874.
Kraft, SA, Constantine, M, Magnus, D, Porter, KM, Lee, SSJ, Green, M, Kass, NE, Wilfond, BS & Cho, MK 2017, 'A randomized study of multimedia informational AIDS for research on medical practices: Implications for informed consent', Clinical Trials, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 94-102.
Levi, BH, Simmons, Z, Hanna, C, Brothers, A, Lehman, E, Farace, E, Bain, M, Stewart, R & Green, MJ 2017, 'Advance care planning for patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis', Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration, vol. 18, no. 5-6, pp. 388-396.
Schubart, JR, Camacho, F, Green, MJ, Rush, KA & Levi, BH 2017, 'Assessing the internal consistency and temporal stability of advance directives generated by an interactive, online computer program', BMJ Supportive and Palliative Care, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 67-72.
Myers, K, Green, M & George, D 2017, 'Authorship negotiation at an interdisciplinary impasse', Academic Medicine, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 138.
Van Scoy, LJ, Green, MJ, Reading, JM, Scott, AM, Chuang, CH & Levi, BH 2017, 'Can Playing an End-of-Life Conversation Game Motivate People to Engage in Advance Care Planning?', American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine, vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 754-761.
Green, MJ & George, DR 2017, 'Commentary on Boxed In: Lessons From the Margins of Medical Student Comics', Academic Medicine, vol. 92, no. 12, pp. 1697.
Van Scoy, LJ, Reading, JM, Hopkins, M, Smith, B, Dillon, J, Green, MJ & Levi, BH 2017, 'Community Game Day: Using an End-of-Life Conversation Game to Encourage Advance Care Planning', Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 680-691.
Wilkes, MS, Day, FC, Fancher, TL, McDermott, H, Lehman, E, Bell, RA & Green, MJ 2017, 'Increasing confidence and changing behaviors in primary care providers engaged in genetic counselling', BMC medical education, vol. 17, no. 1, 163.
Volpe, R, Bruce, C & Green, M 2017, 'Integrating second-year medical students and first-year physician assistant students into a 12-week ethics course', Journal of Physician Assistant Education, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 223-225.
Holland, DIE, Vanderboom, CE, Dose, AM, Ingram, CJ, Delgado, A, Austin, CM, Green, M & Levi, B 2017, 'Nurse-Led Patient-Centered Advance Care Planning in Primary Care', Journal of Hospice and Palliative Nursing, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 368-375.
Sudore, RL, Heyland, DK, Lum, HD, Rietjens, JAC, Korfage, IJ, Ritchie, CS, Hanson, LC, Meier, DE, Pantilat, SZ, Lorenz, K, Howard, M, Green, MJ, Simon, JE, Feuz, MA & You, JJ 2018, 'Outcomes That Define Successful Advance Care Planning: A Delphi Panel Consensus', Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 245-255.e8.
Shapiro, DE, Abbott, LM, Wolpaw, DR, Green, MJ & Levi, BH 2018, 'Using a Simulation of a Frustrated Faculty Member during Department Chair Searches: A Proof of Concept Project', Academic Medicine, vol. 93, no. 2, pp. 224-228.

Clinical Trials Search

Children (age < 18 years)
Adults (age >= 18 years)