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James Broach, PhD

James Broach, PhD

Distinguished Professor and Chair, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Professor, Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
Scientific Program:Next-Generation Therapies
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Research Interests

The Dr. James Broach lab has studied a variety of biological processes using the yeast Saccharomyces as a model system.  These studies have focused primarily on the interaction of cells with their environment, exploring the nature of signaling pathways that cells use to perceive their nutritional state - such as the Ras/protein kinase A pathway and the Target of Rapamycin Complex – and the transcriptional and metabolic responses of those cells to changes in nutritional state.  More recently, the lab has focused on the cell’s stress response, using single cell imaging and genome sequencing-based studies of chromatin structure and transcriptional remodeling.  These studies yielded the remarkable finding that genetically identical cells in the same environment mount quite different responses to an applied stress, allowing the population as a whole to hedge its bets regarding the best survival strategy in the face of an uncertain future.


More recently, the lab has expanded its interest to the application of genomic tools to issues of disease onset and treatment. The work is conducted through the Institute for Personalized Medicine, comprising a biorepository, in which biological samples from all consented patients of the Milton S. Hershey Medical Center are stored; a genomics core, in which state of the art genotyping and NextGen sequencing is applied to the biological samples; and a bioinformatics core, in which patient outcome data obtained from electronic medical records are correlated with genomic profiling and sequencing results. The lab works closely with clinicians at the Milton S. Hershey Medical Center to identify patients whose disorder or response to treatment shows a familial pattern of inheritance, as well as cohorts of patients that have phenotypically distinct disease presentations or responses to treatment.  The lab has successfully pursued studies in a variety of diseases, including various cancers, ALS, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, epilepsy and osteoporosis.

  • Yeasts
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae
  • Genes
  • Proteins
  • Plasmids
  • Mutation
  • Growth
  • Genome
  • DNA
  • Chromatin
  • Nutrients
  • Neoplasms

Recent Publications


Budurlean, L, Tukaramrao, DB, Zhang, L, Dovat, S & Broach, J 2024, 'Integrating Optical Genome Mapping and Whole Genome Sequencing in Somatic Structural Variant Detection', Journal of Personalized Medicine, vol. 14, no. 3, 291.


PROSPECT Consortium, The American Genome Center, International LBD Genomics Consortium & International ALS/FTD Consortium 2023, 'Genome-wide structural variant analysis identifies risk loci for non-Alzheimer's dementias', Cell Genomics, vol. 3, no. 6, 100316.
Salameh, TJ, Roth, K, Schultz, L, Ma, Z, Bonavia, AS, Broach, JR, Hu, B & Howrylak, JA 2023, 'Gut microbiome dynamics and associations with mortality in critically ill patients', Gut Pathogens, vol. 15, no. 1, 66.
Yu, M, Peterson, MR, Cherukuri, V, Hehnly, C, Mbabazi-Kabachelor, E, Mulondo, R, Nsubuga Kaaya, B, Broach, JR, Schiff, SJ & Monga, V 2023, 'Infection diagnosis in hydrocephalus CT images: a domain enriched attention learning approach', Journal of neural engineering, vol. 20, no. 3, 036033.
Ericson, JE, Burgoine, K, Kumbakumba, E, Ochora, M, Hehnly, C, Bajunirwe, F, Bazira, J, Fronterre, C, Hagmann, C, Kulkarni, AV, Kumar, MS, Magombe, J, Mbabazi-Kabachelor, E, Morton, SU, Movassagh, M, Mugamba, J, Mulondo, R, Natukwatsa, D, Kaaya, BN, Olupot-Olupot, P, Onen, J, Sheldon, K, Smith, J, Ssentongo, P, Ssenyonga, P, Warf, B, Wegoye, E, Zhang, L, Kiwanuka, J, Paulson, JN, Broach, JR & Schiff, SJ 2023, 'Neonatal Paenibacilliosis: Paenibacillus Infection as a Novel Cause of Sepsis in Term Neonates With High Risk of Sequelae in Uganda', Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 77, no. 5, pp. 768-775.
Levy, B, Baughn, LB, Akkari, Y, Chartrand, S, LaBarge, B, Claxton, D, Lennon, PA, Cujar, C, Kolhe, R, Kroeger, K, Pitel, B, Sahajpal, N, Sathanoori, M, Vlad, G, Zhang, L, Fang, M, Kanagal-Shamanna, R & Broach, JR 2023, 'Optical genome mapping in acute myeloid leukemia: a multicenter evaluation', Blood Advances, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 1297-1307.
Morton, SU, Hehnly, C, Burgoine, K, Ssentongo, P, Ericson, JE, Kumar, MS, Hagmann, C, Fronterre, C, Smith, J, Movassagh, M, Streck, N, Bebell, LM, Bazira, J, Kumbakumba, E, Bajunirwe, F, Mulondo, R, Mbabazi-Kabachelor, E, Nsubuga, BK, Natukwatsa, D, Nalule, E, Magombe, J, Erickson, T, Ngonzi, J, Ochora, M, Olupot-Olupot, P, Onen, J, Ssenyonga, P, Mugamba, J, Warf, BC, Kulkarni, AV, Lane, J, Whalen, AJ, Zhang, L, Sheldon, K, Meier, FA, Kiwanuka, J, Broach, JR, Paulson, JN & Schiff, SJ 2023, 'Paenibacillus spp infection among infants with postinfectious hydrocephalus in Uganda: an observational case-control study', The Lancet Microbe, vol. 4, no. 8, pp. e601-e611.
Costa, ACT, Russo, M, Fernandes, AAR, Broach, JR & Fernandes, PMB 2023, 'Transcriptional Response of Multi-Stress-Tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Sequential Stresses', Fermentation, vol. 9, no. 2, 195.


NYGC ALS Consortium 2022, 'Cell environment shapes TDP-43 function with implications in neuronal and muscle disease', Communications Biology, vol. 5, no. 1, 314.
Hehnly, C, Ssentongo, P, Bebell, LM, Burgoine, K, Bazira, J, Fronterre, C, Kumbakumba, E, Mulondo, R, Mbabazi-Kabachelor, E, Morton, SU, Ngonzi, J, Ochora, M, Olupot-Olupot, P, Mugamba, J, Onen, J, Roberts, DJ, Sheldon, K, Sinnar, SA, Smith, J, Ssenyonga, P, Kiwanuka, J, Paulson, JN, Meier, FA, Ericson, JE, Broach, JR & Schiff, SJ 2022, 'Cytomegalovirus infections in infants in Uganda: Newborn-mother pairs, neonates with sepsis, and infants with hydrocephalus', International Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 118, pp. 24-33.
Kumar, MS, Slud, EV, Hehnly, C, Zhang, L, Broach, J, Irizarry, RA, Schiff, SJ & Paulson, JN 2022, 'Differential richness inference for 16S rRNA marker gene surveys', Genome biology, vol. 23, no. 1, 166.
Labarge, B, Hennessy, M, Zhang, L, Goldrich, D, Chartrand, S, Purnell, C, Wright, S, Goldenberg, D & Broach, JR 2022, 'Human Papillomavirus Integration Strictly Correlates with Global Genome Instability in Head and Neck Cancer', Molecular Cancer Research, vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 1420-1428.
Shi, A, Fan, F & Broach, JR 2022, 'Microbial adaptive evolution', Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 49, no. 2, kuab076.
Stine, JG, Schreibman, IR, Faust, AJ, Dahmus, J, Stern, B, Soriano, C, Rivas, G, Hummer, B, Kimball, SR, Geyer, NR, Chinchilli, VM, Loomba, R, Schmitz, K, Sciamanna, C, Strine, C, Wentzel, R, Marlin, S, Sica, C, Vesek, J, Eyster, E, Sinoway, L, Bentz, K, Handley, N, Hershey Fell, B, Mottilla, S, Christ, C, George, S, Novchich, T, Beyer, M, Clarke, K, Myers, T, Glading-Steinruck, M, Krok, K, Ma, T, Riley, T, Thompson, E, Tressler, H, Broach, J, Doan, T, Patrick, S, Reed, S, Hamilton, C, Slavoski, K & Tregea, D 2022, 'NASHFit: A randomized controlled trial of an exercise training program to reduce clotting risk in patients with NASH', Hepatology, vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 172-185.
NYGC ALS Consortium 2022, 'NOS1AP is a novel molecular target and critical factor in TDP-43 pathology', Brain Communications, vol. 4, no. 5.
Budurlean, L, Baker, M & Broach, J 2022, 'Rare MYC-N11S germline mutation indicative of inherited breast cancer in a multigeneration family', BMJ case reports, vol. 15, no. 11, e251336.
Wasserfall, C, Dyer, AM, Speake, C, Andersen, DK, Baab, KT, Bellin, MD, Broach, JR, Campbell-Thompson, M, Chinchilli, VM, Lee, PJ, Park, WG, Pratley, RE, Saloman, JL, Sims, EK, Tang, G, Yadav, D, Yazici, C & Conwell, DL 2022, 'Standard Operating Procedures for Biospecimen Collection, Processing, and Storage: From the Type 1 Diabetes in Acute Pancreatitis Consortium', Pancreas, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 593-597.
Xu, J, Song, F, Lyu, H, Kobayashi, M, Zhang, B, Zhao, Z, Hou, Y, Wang, X, Luan, Y, Jia, B, Stasiak, L, Wong, JHY, Wang, Q, Jin, Q, Jin, Q, Fu, Y, Yang, H, Hardison, RC, Dovat, S, Platanias, LC, Diao, Y, Yang, Y, Yamada, T, Viny, AD, Levine, RL, Claxton, D, Broach, JR, Zheng, H & Yue, F 2022, 'Subtype-specific 3D genome alteration in acute myeloid leukaemia', Nature, vol. 611, no. 7935, pp. 387-398.
NYGC ALS Consortium 2022, 'TDP-43 loss and ALS-risk SNPs drive mis-splicing and depletion of UNC13A', Nature, vol. 603, no. 7899, pp. 131-137.
Type 1 Diabetes in Acute Pancreatitis Consortium (T1DAPC) 2022, 'Type 1 Diabetes in Acute Pancreatitis Consortium: From Concept to Reality', Pancreas, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 563-567.
Hehnly, C, Shi, A, Ssentongo, P, Zhang, L, Isaacs, A, Morton, SU, Streck, N, Erdmann-Gilmore, P, Tolstoy, I, Reid Townsend, R, Limbrick, DD, Paulson, JN, Ericson, JE, Galperin, MY, Schiff, SJ & Broach, JR 2022, 'Type IV Pili Are a Critical Virulence Factor in Clinical Isolates of Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus', mBio, vol. 13, no. 6.
Movassagh, M, Morton, SU, Hehnly, C, Smith, J, Doan, TT, Irizarry, R, Broach, JR, Schiff, SJ, Bailey, JA & Paulson, JN 2022, 'mirTarRnaSeq: An R/Bioconductor Statistical Package for miRNA-mRNA Target Identification and Interaction Analysis', BMC genomics, vol. 23, no. 1, 439.


Mishra, D, Bepler, T, Teague, B, Berger, B, Broach, J & Weiss, R 2021, 'An engineered protein-phosphorylation toggle network with implications for endogenous network discovery', Science, vol. 373, no. 6550, eaav0780.
The NeuroLINCS Consortium & NYGC ALS Consortium 2021, 'An integrated multi-omic analysis of iPSC-derived motor neurons from C9ORF72 ALS patients', iScience, vol. 24, no. 11, 103221.
Johnson, JO, Chia, R, Miller, DE, Li, R, Kumaran, R, Abramzon, Y, Alahmady, N, Renton, AE, Topp, SD, Gibbs, JR, Cookson, MR, Sabir, MS, Dalgard, CL, Troakes, C, Jones, AR, Shatunov, A, Iacoangeli, A, Al Khleifat, A, Ticozzi, N, Silani, V, Gellera, C, Blair, IP, Dobson-Stone, C, Kwok, JB, Bonkowski, ES, Palvadeau, R, Tienari, PJ, Morrison, KE, Shaw, PJ, Al-Chalabi, A, Brown, RH, Calvo, A, Mora, G, Al-Saif, H, Gotkine, M, Leigh, F, Chang, IJ, Perlman, SJ, Glass, I, Scott, AI, Shaw, CE, Basak, AN, Landers, JE, Chiò, A, Crawford, TO, Smith, BN, Traynor, BJ, Smith, BN, Fallini, C, Gkazi, AS, Topp, SD, Scotter, EL, Kenna, KP, Keagle, P, Tiloca, C, Vance, C, Troakes, C, Colombrita, C, King, A, Pensato, V, Castellotti, B, Baas, F, Ten Asbroek, ALMA, McKenna-Yasek, D, McLaughlin, RL, Polak, M, Asress, S, Esteban-Pérez, J, Stevic, Z, D'Alfonso, S, Mazzini, L, Comi, GP, Del Bo, R, Ceroni, M, Gagliardi, S, Querin, G, Bertolin, C, Van Rheenen, W, Rademakers, R, Van Blitterswijk, M, Lauria, G, Duga, S, Corti, S, Cereda, C, Corrado, L, Sorarù, G, Williams, KL, Nicholson, GA, Blair, IP, Leblond-Manry, C, Rouleau, GA, Hardiman, O, Morrison, KE, Veldink, JH, Van Den Berg, LH, Pall, H, Turner, MR, Talbot, K, Taroni, F, García-Redondo, A, Wu, Z, Glass, JD, Gellera, C, Ratti, A, Brown, RH, Landers, JE, Dalgard, CL, Adeleye, A, Soltis, AR, Alba, C, Viollet, C, Bacikova, D, Hupalo, DN, Sukumar, G, Pollard, HB, Wilkerson, MD, Martinez, EMG, Abramzon, Y, Ahmed, S, Arepalli, S, Baloh, RH, Bowser, R, Brady, CB, Brice, A, Broach, J, Campbell, RH, Camu, W, Cooper-Knock, J, Ding, J, Drepper, C, Drory, VE, Dunckley, TL, Eicher, JD, England, BK, Faghri, F, Feldman, E, Floeter, MK, Fratta, P, Geiger, JT, Gerhard, G, Gibbs, JR, Gibson, SB, Glass, JD, Hardy, J, Harms, MB, Heiman-Patterson, TD, Hernandez, DG, Jansson, L, Kirby, J, Kowall, NW, Laaksovirta, H, Landeck, N, Landi, F, Le Ber, I, Lumbroso, S, Macgowan, DJL, Maragakis, NJ, Mouzat, K, Murphy, NA, Myllykangas, L, Nalls, MA, Orrell, RW, Ostrow, LW, Pamphlett, R, Pickering-Brown, S, Pioro, EP, Pletnikova, O, Pliner, HA, Pulst, SM, Ravits, JM, Renton, AE, Rivera, A, Robberecht, W, Rogaeva, E, Rollinson, S, Rothstein, JD, Scholz, SW, Sendtner, M, Sidle, KC, Simmons, Z, Singleton, AB, Smith, N, Stone, DJ, Tienari, PJ, Troncoso, JC, Valori, M, Van Damme, P, Van Deerlin, VM, Van Den Bosch, L, Zinman, L, Landers, JE, Chiò, A, Traynor, BJ, Angelocola, SM, Ausiello, FP, Barberis, M, Bartolomei, I, Battistini, S, Bersano, E, Bisogni, G, Borghero, G, Brunetti, M, Cabona, C, Calvo, A, Canale, F, Canosa, A, Cantisani, TA, Capasso, M, Caponnetto, C, Cardinali, P, Carrera, P, Casale, F, Chiò, A, Colletti, T, Conforti, FL, Conte, A, Conti, E, Corbo, M, Cuccu, S, Dalla Bella, E, D'Errico, E, Demarco, G, Dubbioso, R, Ferrarese, C, Ferraro, PM, Filippi, M, Fini, N, Floris, G, Fuda, G, Gallone, S, Gianferrari, G, Giannini, F, Grassano, M, Greco, L, Iazzolino, B, Introna, A, La Bella, V, Lattante, S, Liguori, R, Logroscino, G, Logullo, FO, Lunetta, C, Mandich, P, Mandrioli, J, Manera, U, Manganelli, F, Marangi, G, Marinou, K, Marrosu, MG, Martinelli, I, Messina, S, Moglia, C, Mosca, L, Murru, MR, Origone, P, Passaniti, C, Petrelli, C, Petrucci, A, Pozzi, S, Pugliatti, M, Quattrini, A, Ricci, C, Riolo, G, Riva, N, Russo, M, Sabatelli, M, Salamone, P, Salivetto, M, Salvi, F, Santarelli, M, Sbaiz, L, Sideri, R, Simone, I, Simonini, C, Spataro, R, Tanel, R, Tedeschi, G, Ticca, A, Torriello, A, Tranquilli, S, Tremolizzo, L, Trojsi, F, Vasta, R, Vacchiano, V, Vita, G, Volanti, P, Zollino, M & Zucchi, E 2021, 'Association of Variants in the SPTLC1 Gene with Juvenile Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis', JAMA neurology, vol. 78, no. 10, pp. 1236-1248.
Costa, ACT, Hornick, J, Antunes, TFS, Santos, AMC, Fernandes, AAR, Broach, JR & Fernandes, PMB 2021, 'Complete genome sequence and analysis of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain used for sugarcane spirit production', Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 1087-1095.
Ssentongo, P, Hehnly, C, Birungi, P, Roach, MA, Spady, J, Fronterre, C, Wang, M, Murray-Kolb, LE, Al-Shaar, L, Chinchilli, VM, Broach, JR, Ericson, JE & Schiff, SJ 2021, 'Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection Burden and Epidemiologic Risk Factors in Countries with Universal Screening: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis', JAMA network open, vol. 4, no. 8, e2120736, pp. E2120736.
Goldrich, DY, Labarge, B, Chartrand, S, Zhang, L, Sadowski, HB, Zhang, Y, Pham, K, Way, H, Lai, CYJ, Pang, AWC, Clifford, B, Hastie, AR, Oldakowski, M, Goldenberg, D & Broach, JR 2021, 'Identification of somatic structural variants in solid tumors by optical genome mapping', Journal of Personalized Medicine, vol. 11, no. 2, 142, pp. 1-21.
Isaacs, AM, Morton, SU, Movassagh, M, Zhang, Q, Hehnly, C, Zhang, L, Morales, DM, Sinnar, SA, Ericson, JE, Mbabazi-Kabachelor, E, Ssenyonga, P, Onen, J, Mulondo, R, Hornig, M, Warf, BC, Broach, JR, Townsend, RR, Limbrick, DD, Paulson, JN & Schiff, SJ 2021, 'Immune activation during Paenibacillus brain infection in African infants with frequent cytomegalovirus co-infection', iScience, vol. 24, no. 4, 102351.
Raca, G, Abdel-Azim, H, Yue, F, Broach, J, Payne, JL, Reeves, ME, Gowda, C, Schramm, J, Desai, D, Dovat, E, Hu, T, Berg, AS, Bhojwani, D, Payne, KJ & Dovat, S 2021, 'Increased Incidence of IKZF1 deletions and IGH-CRLF2 translocations in B-ALL of Hispanic/Latino children—a novel health disparity', Leukemia, vol. 35, no. 8, pp. 2399-2402.
The American Genome Center (TAGC), The FALS Sequencing Consortium, The Genomics England Research Consortium, The International ALS/FTD Genomics Consortium (iAFGC), The International FTD Genetics Consortium (IFGC), The International LBD Genomics Consortium (iLBDGC), The NYGC ALS Consortium, the University of Maryland Brain and Tissue Bank and NIH NeuroBioBank & The PROSPECT Consortium 2021, 'Pathogenic Huntingtin Repeat Expansions in Patients with Frontotemporal Dementia and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis', Neuron, vol. 109, no. 3, pp. 448-460.e4.
Movassagh, M, Bebell, LM, Burgoine, K, Hehnly, C, Zhang, L, Moran, K, Sheldon, K, Sinnar, SA, Mbabazi-Kabachelor, E, Kumbakumba, E, Bazira, J, Ochora, M, Mulondo, R, Nsubuga, BK, Weeks, AD, Gladstone, M, Olupot-Olupot, P, Ngonzi, J, Roberts, DJ, Meier, FA, Irizarry, RA, Broach, JR, Schiff, SJ & Paulson, JN 2021, 'Vaginal microbiome topic modeling of laboring Ugandan women with and without fever', npj Biofilms and Microbiomes, vol. 7, no. 1, 75.


Zhang, J, Lee, D, Dhiman, V, Jiang, P, Xu, J, McGillivray, P, Yang, H, Liu, J, Meyerson, W, Clarke, D, Gu, M, Li, S, Lou, S, Xu, J, Lochovsky, L, Ung, M, Ma, L, Yu, S, Cao, Q, Harmanci, A, Yan, KK, Sethi, A, Gürsoy, G, Schoenberg, MR, Rozowsky, J, Warrell, J, Emani, P, Yang, YT, Galeev, T, Kong, X, Liu, S, Li, X, Krishnan, J, Feng, Y, Rivera-Mulia, JC, Adrian, J, Broach, JR, Bolt, M, Moran, J, Fitzgerald, D, Dileep, V, Liu, T, Mei, S, Sasaki, T, Trevilla-Garcia, C, Wang, S, Wang, Y, Zang, C, Wang, D, Klein, RJ, Snyder, M, Gilbert, DM, Yip, K, Cheng, C, Yue, F, Liu, XS, White, KP & Gerstein, M 2020, 'An integrative ENCODE resource for cancer genomics', Nature communications, vol. 11, no. 1, 3696.
Jin, SC, Dong, W, Kundishora, AJ, Panchagnula, S, Moreno-De-Luca, A, Furey, CG, Allocco, AA, Walker, RL, Nelson-Williams, C, Smith, H, Dunbar, A, Conine, S, Lu, Q, Zeng, X, Sierant, MC, Knight, JR, Sullivan, W, Duy, PQ, DeSpenza, T, Reeves, BC, Karimy, JK, Marlier, A, Castaldi, C, Tikhonova, IR, Li, B, Peña, HP, Broach, JR, Kabachelor, EM, Ssenyonga, P, Hehnly, C, Ge, L, Keren, B, Timberlake, AT, Goto, J, Mangano, FT, Johnston, JM, Butler, WE, Warf, BC, Smith, ER, Schiff, SJ, Limbrick, DD, Heuer, G, Jackson, EM, Iskandar, BJ, Mane, S, Haider, S, Guclu, B, Bayri, Y, Sahin, Y, Duncan, CC, Apuzzo, MLJ, DiLuna, ML, Hoffman, EJ, Sestan, N, Ment, LR, Alper, SL, Bilguvar, K, Geschwind, DH, Günel, M, Lifton, RP & Kahle, KT 2020, 'Exome sequencing implicates genetic disruption of prenatal neuro-gliogenesis in sporadic congenital hydrocephalus', Nature Medicine, vol. 26, no. 11, pp. 1754-1765.
Russo, M, Newell, JM, Budurlean, L, Houser, KR, Sheldon, K, Kesterson, J, Phaeton, R, Hossler, C, Rosenberg, J, DeGraff, D, Shuman, L, Broach, JR & Warrick, JI 2020, 'Mutational profile of endometrial hyperplasia and risk of progression to endometrioid adenocarcinoma', Cancer, vol. 126, no. 12, pp. 2775-2783.
Paulson, JN, Williams, BL, Hehnly, C, Mishra, N, Sinnar, SA, Zhang, L, Ssentongo, P, Mbabazi-Kabachelor, E, Wijetunge, DSS, Von Bredow, B, Mulondo, R, Kiwanuka, J, Bajunirwe, F, Bazira, J, Bebell, LM, Burgoine, K, Couto-Rodriguez, M, Ericson, JE, Erickson, T, Ferrari, M, Gladstone, M, Guo, C, Haran, M, Hornig, M, Isaacs, AM, Kaaya, BN, Kangere, SM, Kulkarni, AV, Kumbakumba, E, Li, X, Limbrick, DD, Magombe, J, Morton, SU, Mugamba, J, Ng, J, Olupot-Olupot, P, Onen, J, Peterson, MR, Roy, F, Sheldon, K, Townsend, R, Weeks, AD, Whalen, AJ, Quackenbush, J, Ssenyonga, P, Galperin, MY, Almeida, M, Atkins, H, Warf, BC, Lipkin, WI, Broach, JR & Schiff, SJ 2020, 'Paenibacillus infection with frequent viral coinfection contributes to postinfectious hydrocephalus in Ugandan infants', Science Translational Medicine, vol. 12, no. 563, eaba0565.